San Francisco Weather

Why is it so cold!!?
Tips for visitors to our city's not Southern California.

The good news: San Francisco has a very mild climate. It rarely gets out of the 55 to 65 degree range (12 to 18°C), summer or winter.

There's no bad news! Just a reminder to visitors that it's often cool and windy, especially in the afternoon.

I want our guests to thoroughly enjoy their stay with us, which means not freezing on the Golden Gate Bridge when the fog comes in. No blue legs on the bridge!

Girl shivering on the Golden Gate Bridge
What we don't want to see.

Bay Area Microclimates

The Bay Area is unusual in the wide variety of climates that exist just within a few miles of each other. Even San Francisco, only 7 miles square, has microclimates within its city limits.

This area is considered to have a Mediterranean climate: hot, dry summers and cool, rainy winters. And that is generally true. But San Francisco got left out of the hot, dry part, due to its position on the tip of a peninsula surrounded by very cold water.

San Francisco also benefits from the contrast between the cold ocean current and the extreme heat of California's Central Valley. The result is a pretty steady onshore flow of cool air, pulled in by the stifling hot air inland which rises. This also pulls the famous fog inland onto the city.

Aerial view of fog coming through the Golden Gate Bridge

The fog typically shows up offshore around 2:30 to 3:00 pm. Then it rolls in through the Golden Gate, across the bay and sometimes up into the Berkeley Hills.

San Francisco fog coming in, Marin County view
The Fog Coming In
View From North of the Bridge

When it flows onshore, it covers the western half of the city and gets caught up on the range of hills in the center of SF. As a result, the outer neighborhoods near the ocean (the Sunset and Richmond districts) tend to be a lot foggier than the rest of the city. The weather forecast for San Francisco comes in two parts: the coastal area and the rest.

Map of fog and sun pattern in the SF Bay Area
Bay Area Summer Weather

Sudden Changes

A sunny afternoon near the bridge can be cold and foggy an hour later. Hence our recommendation to dress in layers.

A Beautiful Afternoon

Fogy day
Foggy Ferry Ride

What About Rain?

Being that San Francisco has a quasi-Mediterranean climate, 80% of the rain falls in 5 months, November through March. April is iffy; often sunny and warm, but can get rain. The entire rest of the year, May through October, only gets about 5% of the annual rainfall.

Consequently, if you come when most people visit, May through October, your chance of having your vacation ruined by precipitation is very low (so you don't have to carry an umbrella around).

Note: Fog season is May, June and July, and often August, but mainly out in the western part of SF.

What to Wear

Because the weather in San Francisco is so changeable, the best solution is to dress in layers. A jacket or sweatshirt with a hood is the best outer layer; the wind can be cold and strong when the fog starts to come in. But an hour later, the fog may burn off and it's getting warm, so a t-shirt or light long-sleeved shirt would be more comfortable. Or the other way around. The hoodie vendors on Fisherman's Wharf do a brisk business! (I would ditch the shorts.)

Best Months for Weather in San Francisco

Where's the Sun?

The bay counties surrounding SF get very warm in summer, often really hot, and see sunny skies every day, while San Francisco sits in its cool, foggy spot all summer. But even within San Francisco there are noticeable differences in temperature and sun.

There can be a 10 degree difference between downtown San Francisco and the Avenues, out by the beach. The areas popular with tourists tend to be in the sunnier part, like Fisherman's Wharf and Union Square, but Golden Gate Park, the zoo, the Cliff House and Ocean Beach are often socked in May, June and July. The warmest and sunniest parts of the city? The Mission District and Potrero Hill on the eastern side, sheltered by the hills.

Is San Francisco the only foggy town in the Bay Area? No...Daly City, just south of SF is worse; and the oceanside town of Pacifica, just minutes down Highway 1 from San Francisco, is the foggiest of all.

Typical San Francisco Weather

The weather changes here in minutes. Nevertheless, there are some common patterns with the weather in San Francisco.

A Typical Summer Day in SF

June, July and August tend to see a lot of fog. The classic pattern is fog on the coast in the morning, cool and mid to upper 50's (12 °C), burning off by around 10 am, sunny and low 60's (17 °C) until around 3 pm when the cool wind from the ocean starts up, and the fog rolls back in. Socked in until 5 or 6 pm, when it clears up again and the wind dies down. In the Avenues, the Sunset and Richmond Districts closest to the ocean, the fog can sit there all day.

Afternoon Fog Rolls Through the Golden Gate
View From Twin Peaks

A Typical Winter Day in SF

During our severe drought in California, we had a couple of gorgeous, warm and sunny winters, but the rain returned in the winter of 2015/2016. Since then, it's been off and on; the past winter (2018/2019) was stormy and wet.

In winter (November through February), temperatures usually hang out in the mid 50's (18 °C) in the daytime, and drop into the low 50's (11 °C) and upper 40's (9 °C) at night. Rain comes in waves; a storm will blow in, last for a couple of days, and then move inland. A few days or weeks later, another front comes in and repeats.

Even when we do get rain, it only averages around one third of the days in the month, so it's really pretty tame in winter. Occasionally we get some fierce winds which knock down trees, but we rarely see those heavy downpours that people in other parts of the country get. Thunder and lightning are rare as well. Kind of boring, weather-wise!

Spring Weather

March, April and May show a transition from rain to fog, though April can be gorgeous and sunny. May is one of our fog-bound months, with both day and night sitting at 58 degrees (14 °C) and gray!

The Best Time to Come to SF

Our warm and sunny months are September and October. The air is clear and golden and the city looks its best. It can even get hot (in the 90's, 32 °C+! ), but that only lasts 2 or 3 days before our natural air conditioning kicks in: offshore fog...yay. During our "heat waves", the fog stays way offshore and there's not a cloud in the sky.

All of the above is merely typical, not guaranteed!

Weather Odds and Ends

Earthquake Weather

If the day is hot and the air is very still, you may hear someone mention "earthquake weather". Even though there appears to be no scientific basis for a correlation, some people get a bit anxious when the day is unseasonably hot and our afternoon winds are a no-show. The October day in 1989 when the last hefty earthquake struck was really hot and windless, and the weather was unusually warm the day of the Big One in 1906, but don't let it worry you! It's usually cool and windy in SF.

Who is Karl the Fog?

Referring to the fog as Karl got started a few years back when someone created the hashtag #karlthefog on Twitter and it took off for some reason. Karl refers to Karl the giant in the film Big Fish; why, I don't know.

Speaking of Karl, Carl Sandburg's poem Fog captures its essence. He was talking about Chicago, but we'll take it.


The fog comes
on little cat feet.

It sits looking over harbor and city
on silent haunches
and then moves on.

View of Twin Peaks in fog
Fog on Twin Peaks

And here it is...the famous quote about San Francisco weather that Mark Twain never said:

"The coldest winter I ever spent was a summer in San Francisco."

Actually, Mark Twain had a high opinion of our weather, but he suffered mightily from a cold and rainy summer he spent in Paris in 1879.

Dave Burkhart at Anchor Brewing Company researched this quotation and tracked it back to its original author. You can read his entertaining account of it, along with Twain's funny weather remarks, at coldest winter.

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Scroll down for COVID updates.

COVID-19 Status: at midnight on Monday, March 16, San Francisco was placed under a "shelter-in-place order.

All residents were ordered to stay home, except for necessary trips to grocery stores and essential medical visits, and solo outdoor activities like hiking.

The city was gradually reopening of many businesses and activities, but in December, came under a strict, stay-at-home directive, due to a sudden increase in infection and hospitalization rates.

Since then, Covid numbers had dropped significantly, but recently started rising again.

Big changes arrived June 15, 2021: California is "fully reopened", meaning all business sectors will reopen to full or almost full capacity, including concerts, stadium sports and festivals. SF is basically open, though somewhat more cautious in some regards.

As of August 20, 2021, almost 80% of eligible SF residents have been fully vaccinated.

Vaccine requirements: Starting August 20, 2021, SF requires that all restaurants, bars, theaters and gyms check for proof of full vaccination.

Documents accepted: paper or digital vaccination records.

See SF Chron article re: vaccination.

Public transportation options had been cut back, but are expanding again. See SF transit for more info.

The cable cars are running again and are free during August! In September, they will resume full (paid) service, starting with the Powell-Hyde Line, and the other 2 lines to follow after.

See COVID rules for current SF status.

Mask rules: another change, starting August 3, 2021. Everyone is now required to wear a mask indoors in SF, whether vaccinated or not. People may go without masks outdoors unless the area is densely populated. Hospitals, schools, nursing homes and public transit, still require masks./p>

What is open? Muir Woods, the Botanic Gardens, Golden Gate Park, Japanese Tea Garden, Pier 39, SF beaches, Golden Gate Bridge, and Twin Peaks (car access on Portola, main parking lot open) are all open.

Parking lots for SF beaches, Twin Peaks, and the Golden Gate Bridge are open, including the Welcome Center lot.

Restaurants can now be open to full capacity for indoor and outdoor dining, and many restaurants are open for take-out or delivery.

Bars that serve food can serve customers indoors.

Businesses can allow customers inside, up to full capacity. Malls are open.

The SF Zoo is open again.

Offices can reopen up to full capacity.

Alcatraz is open. The Day Tours and Night Tours are running on a somewhat reduced basis. The Cell Block is open also. See Alcatraz.

Hair salons, and open air tour buses, outdoor walking tours, and boat cruises can now operate.

Indoor museums are open, including the CA Academy of Sciences.

Travel to SF. Per the California Dept. of Public Health: non-essential travel to SF from outside California is discouraged but the quarantine requirements are no longer in effect.

Unvaccinated travelers are urged to get tested before and after arrival, and to self-quarantine for 7 days, but this isn't mandatory.

"Non-essential travel" basically means tourism.

Hotels are accepting reservations, but travelers are urged to limit contact with others in the hotel.

Exploratorium: open.

Playgrounds: open.

Indoor swimming pools are open to fullcapacity.

Schools: private schools are open. SF public schools started in-person learning for elementary students April 12. Older grades: negotiations are ongoing. Hopefully all grade levels will be open for in-person fall classes. Masks will be required for students in SF public schools in the fall.

Indoor gyms and indoor movie theaters are open to full capacity.

Indoor concerts, live theater, and sporting events, may open at full capacity. For indoor gatherings of >5,000, proof of vaccination will be required.

Outdoor events for >10,000: may require proof of vaccination or negative test, but aren't required to.

Check individual events for requirements.

Napa and Sonoma county wineries are open.

For a handy list of what's open or closed, in California, see California reopening schedules.

See coronavirus news in the SF Chronicle for details and updates.

Also see site and parking lot closures for the National Park Service (Alcatraz, Muir Woods, etc.)

Plus helpful info on which parks and hiking trails are open in the Bay Area.

And to check the air quality (fires) in SF and the Bay Area, see and the SF Chronicle map showing current tests.

Fog City Mail logo

Get the latest tips on visiting San Francisco.

SF Bus, BART, & Cable Car routes.

thumbnail of SF muni bus map
Muni Route Map

Al Capone and the Alcatraz prison yard, how to get sold-out Alcatraz tickets.
Get Alcatraz tickets.